Specific Learning Difficulties (Reading and Writing Problems, dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia)

Specific learning difficulties  include the population of children who, despite possessing the necessary cognitive abilities and lacking organ or sensory impairment or other visible (known) biological and/or psychological factors, fail to achieve the appropriate level of academic success (Galić Jušić, 2004). These include dyslexia, dysgraphy, dyskalaemia, ADHD/ADD and dyspraxia.

These difficulties are characterised by a different method of processing information and brain function in a different way to other students of the same chronological age. These create problems with reading, writing, calculation, speaking, making conclusions, memory and understanding mathematical problems that arise from transferring, processing and storing (memorising) auditory, visual and tactile information.

Dyslexia implies a lack of reading skills in such a way that reading levels are below those expected at a certain chronological age, cognitive ability and appropriate teaching. With dyslexia and mastering reading and writing, reading speeds are slow, similar characters (grapheme) are substituted, spelling is impossible for sounds (phonemes), often a word is replaced with another word or a person reads ‘by heart’ and there are difficulties in reading comprehension. Signs of dyslexia and difficulties with mastering the reading skill can be seen in the pre-school age group if a child has difficulty recognising words in sentences, understanding and producing rhymes, separating words into syllables, merging syllables into words, voice analysis and synthesis, poor motor skills, or following the rhythm of a bouncing ball while reading a story. Dysgraphia is a difficulty to writing letters and words(for example mrak - mak, blago - bago), substitutions (for example leptir - reptil, dlaka - glaka, majka - mama), addition (for example banana - bananana), assembling two words that are written separately (for example Mumhas told you...), uncoupling words that should remain together(for example će mo) and mirror lettering and disregard of correct spelling. Furthermore incorrectly formatted letters are also present quite often (letters are inclined, too large or too small, lines are not observed) and pens are held incorrectly.

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Written on 22.11.2019.
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